3761 BC – The epoch reference date epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar (Proleptic Julian calendar).
1403 – Battle of Modon: Genoese fleet under Jean Le Maingre (Marshal Boucicaut) is defeated by the Republic of Venice at Modon in the Peloponnese.
1406 – French troops comprising 1,000 men at arms landed on Jersey and fought a battle against 3,000 defenders.
1477 – Uppsala University is inaugurated after receiving its corporate rights from Pope Sixtus IV in February the same year.
1513 – Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramón de Cardona defeat the Venetians.
1542 – Explorer Cabrillo discovers Santa Catalina Island off of the California coast.
1571 – The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Ottoman Navy suffers its first defeat.
1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1691 – The English royal charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued.
1763 – King George III of the United Kingdom issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of the Alleghenies to white settlements.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights.
1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain: American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina.
1800 – French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d’août.
1826 – The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S.
1828 – Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese under General Maison.
1840 – Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands.
1862 – Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) opens as the first hospital in the Colony of British Columbia
1864 – American Civil War: Bahia incident: USS Wachusett illegally captures the CSS Florida Confederate raider while in port in Bahia, Brazil in violation of Brazilian neutrality.
1868 – Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date.
1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Siege of Paris: Léon Gambetta flees Paris in a hot-air balloon.
1879 – Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the “Twofold Covenant” and create the Dual Alliance.
1912 – The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.
1916 – Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history.
1918 – The Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland declares independence from the German Empire and forms the Republic of Poland.
1919 – KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.
1924 – Andreas Michalakopoulos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for a short period of time.
1929 – Photius II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
1933 – Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of five French airlines.
1940 – World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.
1942 – World War II: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.
1944 – World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down Crematorium IV.
1949 – The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed.
1950 – Mother Teresa establishes the Missionaries of Charity.
1958 – President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza, with the support of General Ayub Khan and the army, suspends the 1956 constitution, imposes martial law, and cancels the elections scheduled for January 1959.
1958 – The U.S. manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury.
1959 – U.S.S.R. probe Luna 3 transmits the first ever photographs of the far side of the Moon.
1963 – John F. Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
1977 – The adoption of the Fourth Soviet Constitution.
1985 – The Mameyes landslide kills almost 200 people in Puerto Rico.
1987 – Sikh nationalists declares the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized.
1988 – An Iñupiat hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice in Barrow, Alaska, US; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales.
1993 – The flood of ’93 ends at St. Louis, Missouri, 103 days after it began, as the Mississippi River falls below flood stage.
1996 – Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.
1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being savagely beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming.
2001 – The Global War on Terrorism begins as a result of the September 11 attacks. The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan initiates with an air assault and covert operations on the ground.
2003 – The governor of California, Gray Davis, is recalled in favor of Arnold Schwarzenegger.
2008 – Asteroid 2008 TC3 impacts the Earth over Sudan, the first time an asteroid impact is detected prior to its entry into earth’s atmosphere.
2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to 800.